Saturday, March 14, 2020
Put Adverbs in Their Place Put Adverbs in Their Place Put Adverbs in Their Place By Mark Nichol When, how, or why something is done is expressed by an adverb, whose primary function is signaled by its name: Adverbs modify verbs (and sometimes other parts of speech more on that later). They appear more or less in proximity to the verb they modify, but their syntactical location can vary for diverse reasons. An adverb often follows a verb: Ã¢â¬Å"I stated the rule clearly,Ã¢â¬ but it can precede the verb (Ã¢â¬Å"I clearly stated the ruleÃ¢â¬ ) and even the subject (Ã¢â¬Å"Clearly, I stated the ruleÃ¢â¬ ). Note, however, that the latter form can be confusing: Does the sentence mean that I succeeded in my attempt at clarity, or is the sense that it is obvious that I stated the rule? The sentence, or one that precedes or follows it, must include context. Also, punctuation can change the meaning: Ã¢â¬Å"I stated the rule, clearlyÃ¢â¬ differs in sense from Ã¢â¬Å"I stated the rule clearly.Ã¢â¬ (The version with the comma connotes that the writer believes that the fact is obvious.) And what if a sentence includes two or more verbs? Place the adverb to make it clear which verb it modifies: Ã¢â¬Å"She drove quickly to the store and selected a hatÃ¢â¬ (or, again, Ã¢â¬Å"She quickly drove . . .Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Quickly, she drove . . .Ã¢â¬ ) describes a lead-footed motorist, while Ã¢â¬Å"She drove to the store and selected a hat quicklyÃ¢â¬ (or Ã¢â¬Å". . . quickly selected a hatÃ¢â¬ ) suggests an impulsive, determined, or hurried shopper. Adverbs are applied to infinitives, which are verb phrases beginning with the word to. The pedantic admonishment against inserting is challenged in this previous post by another DailyWritingTips contributor; suffice it to say here that such sentence constructions as Ã¢â¬Å"He sought to successfully challenge the championÃ¢â¬ (rather than the awkwardly hypercorrect Ã¢â¬Å"He sought to challenge successfully the championÃ¢â¬ ) are valid. Adverbs, curiously, also modify adjectives (themselves modifiers), prepositions, and even other adverbs. In Ã¢â¬Å"They were nearly correct,Ã¢â¬ for example, nearly modifies not the preceding verb were but the following adjective correct, and in Ã¢â¬Å"She and I met right on that cornerÃ¢â¬ right modifies the prepositional phrase that follows, rather than the verb before it. Ã¢â¬Å"We quite rightly refused,Ã¢â¬ meanwhile, quite modifies its fellow adverb rightly. Adverbs change position depending on whether they are employed in declarative statements (Ã¢â¬Å"He really is that gullibleÃ¢â¬ ) or interrogative sentences (Ã¢â¬Å"Is he really that gullible?Ã¢â¬ ). Also, they often have distinct meanings based on their position in a sentence; for examples, see the section Ã¢â¬Å"Misplaced WordsÃ¢â¬ in this post. Some writing guides seem to give adverbs a bad rap, but read those resources carefully: The more sensible among them advise, as I do in this previous post about adverbs, hesitation in their employment only because their liberal use is often associated with limp verbs. And do take care to locate them correctly and effectively. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Definitely use "the" or "a"Disappointed + PrepositionArtist vs. Artisan
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Critically evaluate the impact of social media on the business world and our life - Essay Example es users to interact between each other and exchanging details of their lives such as personal information, biographical data and professional information. The emergence of social media from web 2.0 has created a huge impact on the current scenario of commercial environment. The utilization of social media has changed the way people communicate and human relationship dynamics has taken a new perspective. The history of internet has changed drastically due to the revolution of social media and made internet technologies inclusive. Social media has become largest web presence for many businesses which overtakes email and company websites. It is really hard to find any people who does not exercise any forms of social media which can be application and websites. This essay will follow the statement about the emergence of social media has huge impact on human lives and businesses. Social media has provided people a platform that encourage them to share their views, news and opinions that are happening around the globe. Factor that enables to the growth of this technology is due to their ability of producing user-generated content. At an unprecedented level, social media allows users to connect with each other. It has become inevitable part of human lives. Social media has created a global reach for human beings via internet. The benefit of social media on human lives is enormous as it helps users to share knowledge, information and communicate. Advantages of social media are discussed below: Social media enrich human lives by helping them to communicate effectively and regularly with other people. In earlier days, technology used to be more intensive and it required experts to handle it. But over the period, development of technology and platforms helped users to actively use the services without requirement of any expertise in technological background. Social media acts as a wonderful communication tool for people to interact with each other at any place and time.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Financial statement analysis - Research Paper Example NCT&H has taken up some of the important projects on the hospitality industry, which are Hotel Le Bristol, Grand Millennium, Saadiyat Island and Nareel Island. The project of Hotel Le Bristol is the most stylish of its kind, based in Paris it was voted for as the best hotel of the year 2011. The Grand Millennium property of NCT&H was famous for its food and beverage outlet having grand ballroom which has the capacity of 1000 guests and is expected to open in the second quarter of 2012. Saadiyat Island is a joint venture of NCT&H and the UAEÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalÃ¢â¬â¢s TDIC (Tourism Development and Investment). The plan is to set up a low rise hotel with 250 rooms on the shores of Saadiyat Beach district. Lastly, the project of Nareel Island is also a joint venture but with ALDAR Properties of PJSC developing premium gate and the residential property with features like health and fitness club, spa and restaurants. It will even provide Private Marina for the VIPÃ¢â¬â¢s along with hotel excursions. ... Introduction From the very inception of the economic environment it is going through massive changes. In comparison to the previous times economic environment has become more lenient and open towards the private participation of the economic activities related to trade and capital flow (Pailwar, n.d., p. xi). The study of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s annual report gives us the idea that NCT&H is mainly affected by the economic factor which are under constant fluctuation for the interest rate risk of the company which the company is avoiding by the entering into swap trading through the banks. But the company has faced the economic downturn like all other industries during the year of 2008-09. This was the time when the economy went into the sudden depression creating unrest for all the industries of the economy. The economic depression is the main reason behind the low spending capacity of the common mass which again was lower than the NCT&H business for a long period of time (Pailwar, 2009, pp. 1-10). Industry Environment and Industry Risks There are a few factors that are responsible for affecting the environment of the hospitality and tourism industry and are also the reason of its probable risks. The factors being the weather, political conditions, economic conditions and globalisation may be the reason for making or breaking the business of a hospitality and tourism industry. As far as weather is concerned is the hotel is situated in place where snow storming is prevalent the charges may get doubled as skiing can be enjoyed along with the stay. But when it comes to hotels in tropical countries as is NCT&H if the weather turns out to be windy the hotel might lose business as well. Even the natural disasters can affect the hotel
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Association football Essay Hi all i am new here. Was searching helps on essay and found this webby. nice one. My teacher just asked me to write an essay with the title [ my favorite sport game ]. So far as i know, on this case, we are suppose to write about [ why we like it ] instead of [ talking about the sport ] , isnt it? My teacher has given me the notes which are all relating [ talk about the sport ]. below are the notes given from my teacher 1. intro write about the game 2. what it is special about? famous in world , world class team, have won many championship 3. who are the special/outstanding players in the team? 4. what are their special abilities score alot goals, can run and driblle the ball - I am just disagree with the way of writing this essay. It is probably out of topic, if i am not wrong. However, i have done an essay based on the notes given. Pls check and remark for me. If possible, help me think of the REAL and BETTER way to write this essay. Your help is greatly appreciated, thank you. A game is an activity involving one or more players. Games are played primarily for entertainment or enjoyment, but may also serve as exercise. Everyone in this world has their own favorite games, so do I. My favorite game is football . I often play this with my friend in the evening. I like this game because it is exciting and challenging. Football is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a ball game played on a rectangular grass field with a goal at each end. The objective of the game is to score by maneuvering the ball into the opposing goal. The winner is the team which has scored most goals at the end of the match. Football is played at a professional level all over the world, and millions of people regularly go to football stadium to follow their favorite team, whilst millions more avidly watch the game on television. A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations; it is therefore often claimed to be the most popular sport in the world. There are many worldwide international competition of football. One of the major international competitions in football is the World Cup organized by Federation Internationale de Football Association. Over 190 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. The finals tournament, which is held every four years, now involves 32 national teams competing. The next World Cup takes place in Germany 2006. The star I admired most in football is Edson Arantes do Nascimento, nicknamed Pele, is a former Brazilian football player and thought by many to be the finest player of all time. Often considered the complete attacking player, he was completely two-footed, a prolific finisher, exceptional at dribbling and passing, and was a remarkably good tackler for a forward. He was also famed for his speed and strength on the ball. Since his full retirement he has served as an ambassador for the sport. There is many reason football is my favorite game. I wish to become a professional football player. I learnt teambuilding, discipline as well as teamwork through playing football. A game is an activity involving one or more players. Games are played primarily for entertainment or enjoyment, but may also serve as exercise. Everyone in this world has their own favorite games, so do I. My favorite game is football. I often play this with my friends in the evening. I like this game because it is exciting and challenging. Football is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a ball game played on a rectangular grass field with a goal at each end. The objective of the game is to score by maneuvering the ball into the opposing teams goal. The winner is the team which has scored the most goals at the end of the match. Football is played at a professional level all over the world. , and m Millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favorite team, whilst millions more avidly watch the game on television. A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. In many parts of the world, football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations; it is therefore often claimed to be the most popular sport in the world. There are many worldwide international football competitions of football. One of thesethe major international competitions in football is the World Cup organized by Federation Internationale de Football Association. Over 190 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. The finals tournament, which is held every four years, now involves 32 national teams competing. The next World Cup takes place in Germany 2006. The football star I admired most in football is Edson Arantes do Nascimento, nicknamed Pele. Pele is a former Brazilian football player and thought by many to be the finest player of all time. Often considered the complete perfect attacking player, he was completely two-footed, a prolific finisher, exceptional at dribbling and passing, and was a remarkably good tackler for a forward. He was also famed for his speed and strength on the ball. Since his full retirement he has served as an ambassador for the sport. There are is many reasons football is my favorite game. I wish to become a professional football player. I learnt teambuilding, discipline as well as teamwork through playing football.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
African American Response to Uncle Tom's Cabin Ã Ã Many African American 19th Century critics saw Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin as a ray of hope and a means out of oppression. Critics praised the dialogue, the interjected sentimental stories, as well as the characterization. In fact, many considered the novel to be a gift from God. Uncle Tom's Cabin was the only popularized writing at the time that touched upon slavery as negative. The novel was popular in general but more importantly to African Americans. However, the response to the book was limited considering the scarcity of African American newspapers and writers. Much of the African American population at the time was held down by slavery, illiteracy, and/or a lack of places to publish. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the few venues for African American reaction was Frederick Douglass' Paper. William G. Allen, a free black teacher, comments on a particular scene of dialogue in Uncle Tom's Cabin in his letter to this publication: "The religious conversation between the slave-tenders . . . is a capital thing . . . . How it tells upon the miserable spittle-licking religionists of the present day, who, as Tom Stoker has it, are running up a bill all their lives with the devil, calculating to sneak out when pay time comes" (Allen). This discussion between Tom Stoker, Mr. Marks, and Mr. Haley is about whether the slave trade is a Christian business. Mr Haley says, "I b'lieve in religion, and one of these days, when I've got matters tight and snug, I calculates to tend to my soul and them ar matters; and so what's the use of doin' any more wickedness than 's re'lly necessary?--it don't seem to me it's 't all prudent" (Stowe 57). Tom Stoker replies that Mr. Haley is just trying to do evil things all his life with slavery, only to sneak out in the end and go to heaven. William G. Allen, in reference to this scene, commends Stowe's comparison and the relationship between Christianity and slavery. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Allen also praises the touching story of the Quadroon girl in Volume II, Chapter XXXIV. He writes, "The story of the Quadroon girl . . . exceeds anything that I have ever read, in all that is soul-searching and thrilling" (Allen). In the story of Cassy, the Quadroon girl, she helps nurse Uncle Tom back to health after having been beaten and tells him that there is no God. African American Response to Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe :: Uncle Tom's Cabin Essays African American Response to Uncle Tom's Cabin Ã Ã Many African American 19th Century critics saw Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin as a ray of hope and a means out of oppression. Critics praised the dialogue, the interjected sentimental stories, as well as the characterization. In fact, many considered the novel to be a gift from God. Uncle Tom's Cabin was the only popularized writing at the time that touched upon slavery as negative. The novel was popular in general but more importantly to African Americans. However, the response to the book was limited considering the scarcity of African American newspapers and writers. Much of the African American population at the time was held down by slavery, illiteracy, and/or a lack of places to publish. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the few venues for African American reaction was Frederick Douglass' Paper. William G. Allen, a free black teacher, comments on a particular scene of dialogue in Uncle Tom's Cabin in his letter to this publication: "The religious conversation between the slave-tenders . . . is a capital thing . . . . How it tells upon the miserable spittle-licking religionists of the present day, who, as Tom Stoker has it, are running up a bill all their lives with the devil, calculating to sneak out when pay time comes" (Allen). This discussion between Tom Stoker, Mr. Marks, and Mr. Haley is about whether the slave trade is a Christian business. Mr Haley says, "I b'lieve in religion, and one of these days, when I've got matters tight and snug, I calculates to tend to my soul and them ar matters; and so what's the use of doin' any more wickedness than 's re'lly necessary?--it don't seem to me it's 't all prudent" (Stowe 57). Tom Stoker replies that Mr. Haley is just trying to do evil things all his life with slavery, only to sneak out in the end and go to heaven. William G. Allen, in reference to this scene, commends Stowe's comparison and the relationship between Christianity and slavery. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Allen also praises the touching story of the Quadroon girl in Volume II, Chapter XXXIV. He writes, "The story of the Quadroon girl . . . exceeds anything that I have ever read, in all that is soul-searching and thrilling" (Allen). In the story of Cassy, the Quadroon girl, she helps nurse Uncle Tom back to health after having been beaten and tells him that there is no God.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Full of surprising actions, difficult compromises, and bitter defeats, Ben-Hur tells the tale of a Jewish prince, Judea Ben-Hur, born around the time of Jesus Christ in Jerusalem. Judea is childhood friends with a Roman boy named Messala. The deep bond between the two is a point clearly made in the beginning of the movie. The movie swiftly moves ahead over 20 years to a time when Rome has invaded Jerusalem. Ben-Hur is still a prince and regarded still with honor though he no longer rules the land.After years of separation, Ben-Hur and Messala have a joyful reunion and once again begin to reinvigorate the bonds of friendship. Exposition as they walk around fountain with the women discussing their youth lets us know Messala was almost a part of the Ben-Hur family. Everything is sweet with talk of Ã¢â¬Å"old timesÃ¢â¬ yet one still gets the feeling that Messala is a bad guy as he discusses turning Libya to ashes in front of the women and soon after as he tries to get Judea to turn in fellow Jews. Messala is looking to climb the ladder of power and he begs for Ben-HurÃ¢â¬â¢s help in getting rid of Jewish rebels.When Ben-Hur refuses, Messala uses an accident to place Ben-Hur under arrest. He is sent away as a galley slave for use on Roman ships. After saving the life of the Roman Counsel Quintus Arrius, Ben-Hur is freed from slavery and adopted by the high-ranking Roman. Judea Ben-Hur, driven by obtaining revenge on Messala, decides he must leave his new friends and family and return to Jerusalem. The longing to find his sister and mother are as strong as his need for revenge. After leaving Rome, Ben-Hur finds that Messala is now a famed chariot racer in Jerusalem.Fate has Ben-Hur meeting an Arab sheik who owns a chariot but whose rider is inadequate. This Arab offers Ben-Hur the chance to ride in a chariot driven by four of the finest horses he has ever seen in competition against Messala, hoping winning against the evil ex-friend will be revenge enough for Be n-Hur. After politely rejecting the offer, Judea heads back to his Jerusalem home in hope of finding his revenge and his family. But instead, Ben-Hur returns to find his home in disarray and his family still gone.His slaves, however, remain and they have hidden Ben-HurÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. Esther, the slave daughter he freed years before is still there, almost waiting for him to return. Fate once again steps in, and Judea winds up on the sheikÃ¢â¬â¢s chariot in the great chariot race of Jerusalem. Taking up almost twenty minutes of screen time, this ultra-dramatic and occasionally gory scene finds Ben-Hur the victor in the end. Thinking his family dead and his nemesis not only beaten but also mortally wounded, Ben-Hur finally believes the end of his torments may be close at hand.But Messala, despite knowing he is near death, still refuses to concede defeat. He requests a visit from Ben-Hur. It is then that Messala tells Ben-Hur that his family is alive and living as lepers in the vall ey. The obvious fresh pain he brings to his one-time friend seems to please Messala as Ben-Hur is once again filled with agonizing reality. Esther and Ben-Hur soon bring his mother and sister out of the valley and into the city where they are pelted with rocks. Soon though, attention shifts to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.Ben-Hur recognizes Christ. He cannot understand why he is being tortured so and Ben-Hur thrashes through the crowd in order to get closer. He is able to bring Jesus a wooden cup of water and when he sits in front of the wounded Christ to offer the drink, Ben-Hur looks into ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes and it is obvious something deep has passes between them. The crucifixion complete, we see ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s blood being washed down the hillside where Esther and Ben-HurÃ¢â¬â¢s family have taken shelter in cave. It is this night that finds Ben-Hur finally attaining peace.Ben-Hur has probably been described as a film of Ã¢â¬Å"epicÃ¢â¬ proportions more times than the su n has risen since its birth. Nevertheless, epic it is. Made on a grand scale, Ben-Hur is a story of good and evil which is often as clear as in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fable. For example, for centuries most people associate the color white with good and black with bad. Messala, the enemy of Ben-Hur wears black clothing and has black horses in the great chariot race while Ben-HurÃ¢â¬â¢s are clothes are light and his horses white.Yet, it is also a tale that makes one wonder if good and evil are actually as clearly defined as we have been led to believe. Though it is in the background most often, religion plays a big part of this movie. Just like in the modern world where religious fanatics abound, there were many conflicting beliefs two centuries ago. While the movie, in my opinion, could have made the Romans the evildoers simply for their different beliefs, it never stoops that low. Instead, the movie shows that greed is evil and that acceptance of others unlike oneself is what makes all humans good.Messala disparages Jews to Ben-Hur frequently, but it is not that which makes him evil. It is MessalaÃ¢â¬â¢s corrupt ways, selfish actions, and unrepentant heart that make him evil. Not only does the movie compare and contrast Messala and Ben-Hur, it also strives to compare Ben-Hur with Jesus. They were born around the same time, they were good men with great things in their futures. But the pain of one found him seeking blood for blood where the other professed people should fight oppression and evil with love and peace. With cunning subtlety, the live of Jesus is intermingled with Ben-HurÃ¢â¬â¢s.We never see JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ face, nor do we ever hear him speak. But, we do get the ideas Jesus professed through other characters such as Balthazar and Esther. We hear of the types of choices Jesus would make and we witness the one Ben-Hur makes. Judea is absolutely powerful as he talks of how freedom will ring so loudly when Rome falls. We know his choice is to fight, vio lently if need be for what he wants. Yet Jesus is powerful too, as we hear his words of peaceful action through others. Compared to Messala, Ben-Hur is the opposite of evil.But, when compared to Jesus, BenÃ¢â¬âHur is also an opposite. This is where the lines of good vs. evil are less clear than say white and black. It is almost as if the movie wanted us to see Messala as the ultimate evil, Jesus as the ultimate good, and Ben-Hur as the fallible human who must live every day between the two. This pull of both is obvious quite often in Ben-HurÃ¢â¬â¢s life. First he must choose between being a loyal friend and a loyal leader, then he must choose between killing those who would have him dead and remaining alive for the future.He makes life-altering choices based on emotion only many times. The ship scene where Ben-Hur is unlocked prior to being rammed turns into him saving as many other slaves as he can, despite risking his own life by remaining in the shipsÃ¢â¬â¢ hold is not onl y graphic but very emotional. And soon after, he not only kills another to save the life of Quintus Arrius, he saves him again by refusing to allow Quintus Arrius to kill himself by suicide. No expert on this time period, I found this movie to be extremely accurate historically.From the clothing to the architecture of ships and buildings to the desolate desert settings, they all rang fairly true. If occasionally, one could image a particular shot taken on a movie lot, there were hundreds of others that felt perfectly real that could make you forget a second or two of falseness. It seemed that very detailed attention was given to even minor aspects of the film. For instance, Ben-HurÃ¢â¬â¢s hairstyle was decidedly Roman after his months spent in the empireÃ¢â¬â¢s capital. The make up of the women was very detailed too, as were the many wounds shown in the war between ships.Also, the instant where the slave must move the Baton of Victory closer to the emperor reach so that the empe ror would save mere inches of movement rang quite true and a tad funny. Every great epic must have a great ending. Ben-Hur certainly does. This is when Judea is finally reunited with his family and he brings them into to Jerusalem where they see Christ being tortured as he carries the cross. Ã¢â¬Å"In his pain a look of peaceÃ¢â¬ Ester mutters softly as Judea struggles to get close to Jesus.Soon after, the blood of Jesus that runs down the hillsides as the rain pours down heals JudeaÃ¢â¬â¢s family miraculously. Esther was going to leave Ben-Hur as his thirst for vengeance was turning him to Ã¢â¬Å"stoneÃ¢â¬ until a look from Jesus and a few of the crucified preacherÃ¢â¬â¢s words rid Judea of the pull toward evil completely. The happily ever after ending can read like a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fable and feel a little unrealistic as well. But, one has to consider that with all the torment the main characters in this film had to endure in their lives, a little artistic license is u nderstandable.This version of Ben-Hur was a great success. It remains on many lists as one of the top 100 films of all time and is still discussed frequently among moviegoers and critics alike. The famous chariot race scenes in the later half of the movie are recognizable even to many that have never seen the entire film. No doubt this film can be considered a success when fifty years later it is still being watched, still is recognizable, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s actions scenes are still being emulated (Think of the pod-race in Star Wars Ã¢â¬â The Phantom Menace).Another aspect of measuring its success is that while some of the scenes are obviously shot on a filming lot (Ben-HurÃ¢â¬â¢s home after his return from Rome, close-up shots during the dramatic race are the first scenes to come to mind) the production itself was an amazing undertaking. Made in the days before computers could enhance, fix, and modify any image, the drama accomplished is admirable. Thousands of people at a time i n some shots and the final product came together in a way that ends up looking so smooth, but must have been quite an undertaking to realize.The most recent production of Titanic, a massive success in its own right, had fifty years of technology at is disposal and yet itÃ¢â¬â¢s computer generated people aboard the luxurious cruise liner with their stiff movements and bodies and clothing without details cannot hold a candle to the thousands of extras used to fill a Jerusalem arena as they cheer for Ben-Hur, line roman streets for a tribute to the returning Quintus Arrius, fill a hillside from all directions to listen to the words of Jesus Christ, or follow Christ as he takes his last tortured steps through Jerusalem with the heavy wooden cross on his back.Technology has been wonderful to the movie industry, but Ben-Hur stands out even today because it is able to touch the audience intensely without the use of modern tools. The realistic touches, such as the thousands of extras invo lved, the intelligent decision to parallel the live of Jesus while still keeping his character in the background, and the still exciting chariot scenes are only a part of the reason this film is a monumental success still.
Monday, January 6, 2020
If youre confused about the pros and cons of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), youre not alone. While this relatively new technology is riddled with bioethics questions, the arguments for and against GMOs are difficult to weigh because its hard to know what the risks areÃ¢â¬âuntil something goes wrong. GMOs may not be natural, but not everything natural is good for us, and not everything unnatural is bad for us. For example, poisonous mushrooms are natural, but we shouldnt eat them. Washing food before eating it isnt natural (unless youre a raccoon), but it is healthier for us. GMO Is a Broad Term GMOs have been on the market since 1996, so if all of them were an immediate health threat, youd think we would know it by now. Part of the confusion regarding GMOs results from the broad scope the term genetically modified organism includes (although the definition has narrowed and no longer includes genetic alterations that result from the processes of natural mating and mutation). The general consensus among food producers and many consumers is that not all GMOs are bad. Scientific breakthroughs in manipulating plant genetics are actually largely responsible for the commercial success of crops in the United States, especially corn and soy.Ã While increased production is considered a plus by many, studies on the longterm health impact of consuming GMO goods are yet to be conclusive. New legislation initiatives in the United States are seeking to force producers to label goods as genetically modified. But whether such labeling will lead to a better understanding or further confusion regarding a products GMO status remains to be seen. GMOs and Labeling Proponents of GMO labeling believe consumers should be able to decide for themselves whether or not they wish to consume GMO products. In the European Union, the legal definition of a genetically modified organism is an organism, with the exception of human beings, in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. It is illegal in the E.U. to deliberately release a GMO into the environment, and food items containing more than 1% GMOs must be labeled as such. In 2017 the U.S. government passed a national Genetically Modified Foods (GMO) labeling law to ensure a uniform standard for labeling GMOs (also referred to as BE/bioengineered foods). The previous year, Congress passed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard Act that required the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to establish a labeling standard for GMOs. While the requirements were set to take effect by July 2018, after a public comment period, the USDA extended the implementation deadline for two years. The law will go into effect at the beginning of 2020 and will require food companies to be in compliance by January 1, 2022. Why Knowing Whats in Your Food Matters This alteration of the genes usually entails inserting genetic material into an organism in a laboratory without the aegis of natural mating, breeding, or reproduction. In other words, instead of breeding two plants or animals together to encourage certain traits in their offspring, the plant, animal, or microbe has DNA from another organism inserted. Genetically modified products contain novel proteins that could trigger allergic reactions in people who are eitherÃ allergic to one of the components of the GMO or in people who are allergic only to the new substance. Further, food additives that are Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) do not have to undergo rigorous toxicity testing to prove their safety. Instead, their safety is generally based on published past toxicity studies. The FDA has awarded GRAS status toÃ 95% of the GMOsÃ that have been submitted. Arguments for GMO Use GMO technology can develop crops that have higher yields and more nutrients while using less fertilizer and fewer pesticides. If you live in the United States, you are most likely eating GMOs or livestock that was fed GMOs: 88%Ã of the corn and 94% of the soy grown in the U.S. has been genetically modified to be herbicide-resistant and/or insect-resistant. In addition to increased production, GMO technology also speeds evolution. With traditional breeding, it can take several generations before the desired trait is sufficiently brought out in offspring, and each new generation must reach sexual maturity before they can be bred as part of the cycle. With GMO technology, however, the desired genotype can be created instantly in the current generation and, since genetic engineering moves discrete genes or blocks of genes at a time, GMO technology is actually more predictable than traditional breeding during which thousands of genes from each parent are randomly transferred to their offspring. Arguments Against GMO Use The most common arguments against GMOs are that they have not been tested thoroughly, have less predictable outcomes, and can be potentially harmful to human, animal, and crop health as a result.Ã Studies have already shown that GMOs are dangerous to rats. AÃ 2011 review in Environmental Sciences Europe of 19 studies in which genetically modified soy and corn were fed to mammals found that a GMO diet often led to liver and kidney problems. Another concern is that genetically modified plants or animals could interbreed with wild populations, creating problems such as population explosions or crashes or offspring with dangerous traits that would go further into harming the delicate ecosystem. In terms of agriculture, its feared that GMOs will inevitably lead to a decline in mixed cropping and an increase inÃ monoculture, which is dangerous because it threatens the biological diversity of our food supply. GMOs are transferring genes in a much more unpredictable way than natural breeding allows. That doesnt necessarily sound bad until you consider that creating GMOs is a type of genetic engineering that can be further broken down into different subcategories. While cisgenic organisms contain DNA from a member of the same species and are, therefore, generally regarded as less risky, transgenic organisms contain DNA from another speciesÃ¢â¬âand thats where you run into trouble. One of the built-in safeguards of natural breeding is thatÃ a member of one speciesÃ will not produce fertile offspring with a member of another species. With transgenic technology, scientists are transferring genes not just across species but across kingdomsÃ¢â¬âinserting animal genes into microbes or plants. The resulting genotypes could never exist in natureÃ¢â¬âand the process is far more unpredictable than crossing a Macintosh apple with a Red Delicious apple. GMOs vs. Animal Rights Animal rightsÃ activists believe that animals have an intrinsic value separate from any value they have toÃ humansÃ and that animals have a right to be free of human use, oppression,Ã confinement, and exploitation. While GMOs can make agriculture more efficient, thereby reducing human impact on wildlife and wild habitats, genetically modified organisms raise some specific animal rights concerns. GMO technology often involvesÃ experimenting on animals.Ã Animals are used as either a source for geneticÃ material or as the recipient of genetic material, as was the case when jellyfish and coral were used to create genetically modified glowing mice, fish, and rabbitsÃ for the novelty pet trade. TheÃ patenting of genetically modified animalsÃ is also of concern toÃ animal rights activists. Patenting animals is tantamount to treating them as propertyÃ rather than sentient, living beings. Animal advocates believe the reversesÃ¢â¬âthat animals are sentient, living beings as opposed to things people ownÃ¢â¬âand view the patenting of animals as a step in the wrong direction. Under the U.S. Food,Ã Drug,Ã and Cosmetics Act, new food additives must be proven safe. While there are no required tests, the FDA offersÃ Guidelines for Toxicity StudiesÃ that include rodents and non-rodents, usually dogs. Although some opponents of GMOs are demanding more long-term tests, animal advocates should refrain from doing so as more tests will meanÃ more animals sufferingÃ in laboratories. Sources Philpott, Tom. Are Genetically Modified Foods Safe to Eat? Mother Jones. September 30, 2011.SÃ ©ralini, Gilles-Eric;Ã Mesnage, Robin;Ã Clair, Emilie;Ã Gress, Steeve; Spiroux de VendÃ ´mois,Ã JoÃ «l; Cellier, Dominique.Ã Genetically Modified Crops Safety Assessments: Present Limits and Possible Improvements. SpringerOpen: Environmental Sciences Europe. March 1, 2011.On Patented Mouse: Let Reason Rule. Chicago Tribune. April 17, 1988.Everything You Need to Know About GMO Labeling in 2019. Illinois Farm Families Blog. 2019.